Dates

This is a list of historical dates. Everything is listed in date order, except for Empires which are listed in alphabetical order. This list is not yet completed– I will keep adding to it. Hopefully you find it to be an ‘at-a-glance’ resource. 

  • BCE = Before Common Era (Before the year zero)
  • CE = Common Era (After the year zero)

 

Key Dates

  • 336 BCE – Alexander the Great comes to power
  • 332 BCE – Alexander conquers Palestine
  • 331 BCE – Alexander conquers Egypt
  • 330 BCE – Alexander conquers the Persian Empire
  • 326 BCE – Alexander conquers India/Indus Valley
  • 323 BCE – Alexander dies (poisoned?) aged 33
  • 323 – 280 BCE – Greek Empire in civil way between the four generals under Alexander
  • 280 – 200 BCE – Ptolemaic Dynasty over Palestine
  • 200 – 164 BCE – Seleucid Dynasty over Palestine
  • 164 – 163 BCE – Hasmonean Dynasty (home rule)
  • 63 BCE – Roman Empire over Palestine/Israel
  • 4 BCE – Jesus
  • 30 CE – Jesus death and ressurection
  • 70 CE – Destruction of Jerusalem
  • 90 CE – Council of Jamnia (39 books of Old Testament canon)
  • 313 CE – Edict of Milan, Constantine
  • 325 CE – Council of Nicea
  • 476 CE – End of Roman Empire
  • 590 CE – Papal power
  • 622 CE – Islam
  • 800 CE – Charlemagne
  • 1054 CE – East-West Schism
  • 1096 CE – First Crusade
  • 1202 CE – Roman sacking of Constantinople
  • 1255 CE – Thomas Aquinas / Scholastic Theology
  • 1453 CE – End of Byzantine Empire

 

Eras

  • 3,000 million BCE
    • Algae, worm tubes, indirect evidence of life on earth.
    • Archeozoic era.
    • Proterozoic era.
    • Precambrian era.
  • 600 to 280 million BCE – Paleozoic era (age of invertebrates).
    • 600 million BCE – Cambrian period – trilobite life forms.
    • 500 million BCE – Ordovician period– nautiloide life forms, marine shellfish.
    • 425 million BCE – Silurian period – crinoid life forms.
    • 405 million BCE – Devonian period – brachiopods and fish.
    • 345 million BCE – Mississippian period– insects, coral forests, amphibians.
    • 310 million BCE – Pennsylvanian period – insects, coral forests, amphibians.
    • 280 million BCE – Permian period – reptiles. Appalachian mountains formed.
  • 230 to 135 million BCE – Mesozoic era (age of reptiles).
    • 230 million BCE – Triassic period – ammonoids.
    • 181 million BCE – Jurassic period – the first birds. Sierra Nevada Mountains formed.
    • 135 million BCE – Cretaceous period – dinosaurs, first flowering plants. Rocky Mountains formed.
  • 63 to 12 million BCE – Cenozoic era (age of mammals).
    • Saber-tooth cat, horses, primitive mammals.
    • Alps, Himalayas, Cascade Mountain ranges formed.
    • 63 million BCE – Paleocene period.
    • 60 million BCE – Ecocene period.
    • 36 million BCE – Oligocene period.
    • 25 million BCE – Miocene period.
    • 12 million BCE – Pliocene period.
    • 1.6 to 1 million BCE –Pleistocene period – man, woolly mammoth.
    • 1.6 million to 10,000 BCE – Homo genus. Pre-agriculture. Perennial grasses.
  • 9,000 BCE to Industrial Revolution (late 1,700s CE) – Holocene era.
  • Industrial Revolution to Present Day – Anthropocene era.

 

Process of plant and forest development

  • 1st stage – bare rock, soil layer at it’s least biodiverse.
  • 2nd stage – pioneer species (weeds, moss, grass, wheat, corn). Soil & biodiversity enriches.
  • 3rd stage – perennial grasses (asparagus, bananas, prairie grasses, flowers). Soil layer & biodiversity enriches, captures carbon and water for aquifers below the surface.
  • 4th stage – woody pioneers and bushes. Soil layer & biodiversity enriches. Weeds begin to die.
  • 5th stage – fast growing trees. Soil layer & biodiversity enriches.
  • 6th stage – climax forest. Soil layer & biodiversity enriches.
  • Generating 3 centimeters of top soil takes 1,000 years.
  • Today, 60% of the world’s top soil has been lost.

 

Early humans

  • 8 to 5 million BCE – Small African primates begin walking upright.
  • 5 to 2 million BCE – Hominids (Australopithicines).
  • 5 to 1 million BCE – Early hominids inhabit eastern and southern Africa.
  • 1.8 million to 300,000 BCE – First wave of world colonization by early Homo (Africa, temperate Europe, Asia and tropical areas)
    • 1.6 million to 10,000 BCE – Homo genus.
    • 900,000 BCE – Ice ages begin accelerating in frequency, occurring roughly every 100,000 years. Polar ice sheets move south, thaw and cause sea levels to rise.
  • 500,000 BCE – hominids are scavenging with tools, spears and use of fire.
  • 120,000 to 100,000 BCE – two types of Hominids in the Eastern Mediterranean:
    • Homo Neanderthalensis (in Europe and West Asia)
    • Homo Sapiens (early) in South Africa. First hominids to use a developed spoken language.
    • Many aspects of human consciousness begin to emerge.
  • 100,000 to 10,000 BCE – Second wave of world colonization by modern humans (Americas, Australia, Northern Europe and Asia)
    • 100,000 BCE – West Asia colonized by Homo Sapiens.
    • 60,000 BCE – East Asia & Australia colonized.
    • 50,000 BCE – Neanderthals emerge.
    • 40,000 BCE – Europe colonized by Homo Sapiens.
    • 30,000 BCE – Homo Sapiens are the only surviving Hominids (intermixed or killed Neanderthals and other Hominids)
    • 16,000 BCE – maximum southward reach of the ice sheets of the Ice Ages.
    • 16,000 to 9,000 BCE – Homo Sapiens colonize Americas.
      • 16,000 BCE – North America colonized.
      • 12,000 BCE – Central America colonized.
      • 9,000 BCE – All of South America colonized.

 

Emergence of agriculture and civilizations

  • 10,000 BCE
    • The world is inhabited solely by semi-nomadic scavengers / hunters & gatherers.
    • Kinship-based societies.
    • Gift economies (non-monetary).
    • History is passed on by oral tradition.
    • Management of perennial plants.
    • The land is viewed as being sacred.
  • 8,500 to 8,000 BCE
    • The invention of mono-crop agriculture.
    • Agriculture and early civilizations emerge.
  • 6,000 BCE
    • Possibly the earliest walled city is at Catal Hüyuk (in modern day Turkey).
  • 4,000 to 200 BCE
    • First civilizations emerge in the Fertile Crescent, specifically along the rivers.
    • Irrigation projects, agriculture & settlements, storage of food surplus, societal hierarchies, division of labor and class structures, writing, money & transactional economies, armies to protect food surplus & territory, centralization of peoples, Pharaoh/King is viewed as sacred.
    • 3,000 to 1,700 BCE – Egypt, Mesopotamia, Indus Valley, Shang (China)
    • 1,200 to 500 BCE – Americas (Olmec & Chavin cultures), Persian Empire, Greek city-states (Minoan & Mycenaean), Mauryan Empire (India), Egyptian Kingdoms, Etruscan city-states, Zhou state (China).
  • 2,500 – 800 BCE
    • Bronze Age.

 

Cultures in date order

  • 3,000 – 1,000 BCE
    • 2,900 – 1,200 BCE – Egyptian Empire. Three kingdoms.
      • 2686 – 2,181 BCE – Old Kingdom.
    • 2,000 BCE – Egypt controls Palestine.
    • Colonies in Canaan and Syria.
  • 2,000 – 1,000 BCE
    • 1,700 – 1,050 BCE – Shang China.
    • 2,055 – 1,550 – Egyptian Empire – Middle Kingdom period.
    • 1,550 – 1,069 – Egyptian Empire – New Kingdom period.
    • 1,400 – 200 BCE – Pre-Chavin & Chavin in South America (Peru area).
    • 1,250 – 1,050 BCE – Israel becomes a people.
    • 1,200 BCE – Hebrew/Jewish people are settling in villages in Canaan highlands.
    • 1,200 – 300 BCE – Olmec civilization in Mexico (Mesoamerica).
  • 1,000 BCE – 0 CE
    • 1,050 – 256 BCE – Zhou Dynasty in China.
    • 539 BCE – Babylonian Empire ends.
    • 550 BCE – Confucius
    • 404 BCE – Greek Empire ends.
    • 375 BCE – 650 CE – Nazca & Moche in South America (Peru area).
    • 140 – 63 BCE – Jewish Hasmonean Dynasty
    • 27 BCE – 14 CE – Roman Empire begins.
  • 0 – 1,000 CE
    • 100 – 700 CE – Classic Highland Civilizations in Mexico (Mesoamerica) – Monte Alban Empire, Teotihuacan Empire.
    • 200 – 550 CE – Early Classic Maya in Mexico (Mesoamerica).
    • 400 – 1,000 CE – Tiwanaku & Hauri in South America (Peru / Bolivia / Chile area)
  • 19th Century / Industrial Revolution
    • Its impact went far beyond economic matters. There were mass movements of people. The traditional extended family (parents, uncles, aunts, cousins) was weakened by these movements. The nuclear family had to bear a greater burden in the transmission of values and traditions. Many saw their lives as their private responsibility. Individualism and preoccupation with the self became a common theme in both philosophy and literature. The Industrial Revolution also contributed to the idea of progress. Throughout most of history, people had thought tried and true methods were better than most innovations. But now people looked to the future. Applied technology would solve our problems. Even Darwin’s theory was a sort of expression of faith in progress. Survival of the fittest contributes to the progress of the entire species. History came to be viewed as a progression also– humans had not always been as they are now, our religious and intellectual views had evolved, casting doubt on traditional views. If society had changed throughout the centuries, why not now try to produce further changes. Comte (one of the founders of modern sociology) proposes such changes– a society in the hands of capitalists and merchants. Socialism became a common theme. In 1848, Karl Marx publishes his Communist Manifesto. Freud becomes interested in how the human mind functions. The nineteenth century gives birth to disciplines such as sociology, economics, anthropology and psychology.

 

Empires, Societies, Civilizations in alphabetical order

  • Africa
    • 1920s-30s CE – the height of colonial rule in Africa. Ethiopia and Liberia were the only countries that retained their independence.
    • 1939 – 45 CE – The Second World War into which the colonial powers brought in African countries. North Africa was a major zone of conflict. WWII stimulated economic development in Africa. The injustice of colonialism felt in Africa at this time was due to the fact that these countries weren’t allowed democracy, which European countries had earlier fought for. India’s independence in 1947 encouraged African nationalists to press for the same. Britain and France’s purchase of African raw materials after the war, to rebuild their countries, bought at severely depressed prices, also grew a desire for African country’s independence.
    • 1954 – 1962 CE – long and bloody Algerian War.
    • 1956 – 1962 CE – most of sub-Saharan Africa gains its independence after WWII. (see History Atlas, page 56 for dates of independence.)
    • 1957 CE – The Gold Coast gains independence as Ghana, under charismatic pan-African leader Kwame Nkrumah, which began a wave of decolonization in sub-Saharan Africa.
    • Cold War – competition for influence in Africa became an important proxy for global conflict. Foreign aid often took the form of military training and weapons, rather than stimulus to economic development.
    • Following independence – countries such as Ghana and Mozambique adopted socialist transformation, Kenya and the Ivory Coast headed towards capitalism, Tanzania sought to disengage from the global economy and focus on autonomous development. Nigeria’s exploitation of oil provided great wealth for the political elite.
    • 1950s – 60s – many African countries make considerable economic progress.
    • 1970s CE – Africa suffers a major economic crisis as a result of the increase in oil prices, falling commodity prices, increased interest rates, borrowing and national debt to the international markets. Some countries were so stricken by the debt they owed that they had no option to accept “structural adjustment programs” proposed by the IMF, remodeling their economies on free market principles. International debt still continues to hamper efforts at economic development.
    • 1974 CE – not all countries gained independence in the wave from 1956-62. The Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique won independence after a coup d’etat in Lisbon in 1974.
    • 1980 CE – black African rule finally achieved in Zimbabwe (formerly Southern Rhodesia). The only African state to achieve freedom for blacks except for South Africa and its illegally controlled satellite, Namibia.
    • 1980s -90s CE – large parts of Africa experience economic stagnation during the 80s and collapse in the 90s.
    • 1990 CE – Namibia wins its independence.
    • 1990 CE – Nelson Mandela freed from prison. President de Klerk announces the abolition of apartheid.
    • 1990 CE – a multiparty government system in place in 7 African countries.
    • 1994 CE – black South Africans get to vote for the first time in a national election.
    • 1994 CE – Nelson Mandela becomes president of South Africa, after spending 27 years in prison as a political prisoner. The African National Council (ANC) was victorious with 63 per cent of the vote.
    • 2002 CE – formation of the African Union, aimed at promoting the continent’s common interests internationally.
    • 2010 CE – first multiparty elections had been held in most African countries. Countries that still had not had multiparty elections– Libya, Eritrea, Somali Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Djibouti.
  • Assyrian Empire
    • 2,400 – 612 BCE.
  • Asia
    • 1917 CE – Thailand, a bloodless revolution that ended centuries of absolute monarchy.
    • 1939 CE – Thailand, the name of the kingdom, “Siam”, was changed to “Thailand.”
    • 1945 CE – the end of the Second World War, in Southeast Asia helped to inspire the rise of indigenous nationalism, which in turn in laid the seeds for the wars of liberation that were to continue into the 1970s.
    • 1945 CE – Philippines promised full independence on July 4th, 1946.
    • 1948 CE – Burma gains independence.
    • 1949 CE – The Republic of Indonesia formed.
    • 1954 CE – Vietnam struggles against colonial France for independence. The country is divided into communist north and US-backed south. 1965, the US commits ground troops. 1973, US troops were withdrawn. 1975, communist troops entered Saigon. Vietnam has been under communist rule since.
    • 1957 CE –  Malaysia, British rule came to an end.
    • 1959-75 CE – the Vietnam War.
    • 1963 CE – Federation of Malaysia was formed.
    • 1975-79 CE– Pol Pot’s brutal experiment in social restructuring in Cambodia resulted in the deaths of 1 million people.
    • 1984 CE – Brunei gains independence from Britain.
  • Babylonian Empire
    • 2,000 – 539 BCE – the empire is toppled by Cyrus of Persia.
  • British Empire / England
    • 1066 CE – Battle of Hastings. William The Conqueror.
    • 1215 CE – Magna Carta.
    • 1337 – 1453 CE – Hundred Years’ War.
    • 1497 CE – John Cabot’s voyage. Discovers 400 miles of coast from Newfoundland to Cape Breton.
    • 1558 – 1603 CE – Elizabeth I reigns.
    • 1577 – 1580 CE – Sir Francis Drake circumnavigates the world in search of a new transpacific route.
    • 1605 CE – Guy Fawkes / Gunpowder Plot to blow up the King and the Puritans who sat in Parliament. Guy Fawkes was Catholic and even fought for the Spanish.
    • 1611 CE – King James Version of Bible is published.
    • 1618 – 1648 CE – Thirty Years War in Europe.
    • 1642 CE – Civil War in England.
    • 1647 CE – Charles I prisoner of Parliament.
    • 1647 CE – Westminster Confession published.
    • 1756 – 1763 – Seven Years’ War between Great Britain and France.
    • 1776 CE – Adam Smith’s “Wealth of Nations” is published.
    • 1899-1902 CE– South African “Boer War”.
    • 1947 CE – the British Commonwealth (Commonwealth of Nations). Nearly all former British colonies joined. 1947: India and Pakistan included. South Africa left after condemnation of apartheid, but rejoined in 1994. Pakistan left in 1972 in protest to the inclusion  of Bangladesh, but rejoined in 1989. In 2009, Rwanda became the second country to join that had not previously been a colony.
  • Byzantine Empire / Eastern Roman Empire
    • 27 BCE – 1453 BCE
    • 1453 CE – Fall of Constantinople.
  • Chinese Empires & Dynasties
    • 1,700 – 1,050 BCE – Shang China.
    • 1,050 – 256 BCE – Zhou Dynasty.
    • 551 – 479 BCE – Confucius.
    • 360 CE – The Chinese had explored Central Asia, reaching as far as the Euphrates.
    • 1368 – 1644 CE – Ming Dynasty.
    • 1405 – 1433 CE – Zheng He’s pioneering voyages of the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
    • 1840 – 42 CE – First Opium War with Britain.
    • 1850 – 1864 CE – Rebellion of Taiping, the ‘Heavenly Kingdom’ (see Religions and Ideologies)
    • 1856 – 60 CE – Second Opium War with Britain, plus France and Russia.
    • 1894 – 95 CE – First Sino-Japanese War.
    • 1895 – 45 CE – Taiwan is under Japanese control.
    • 1911 CE – The Chinese Revolution saw the overthrow of the last Manchu Qing emperor and the establishment of the first Republic. The presidential term of the revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen lasted barely six weeks after his inauguration in 1912. Over the next 30 years the Chinese Republic was in virtual anarchy.
    • Kuomintang – Sun Yat-sen set about creating a united Nationalist Party. The Kuomintang was nominally unified at the end of 1928 under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek. It was at the end of 1930 that real unification of the party was achieved. Chiang launched 5 military campaigns to suppress the communists.
    • Communist Party – wanted the same nationalist goal, but often found themselves enemies and in opposition to the Kuomintang.
    • 1917 CE – The first North-South War broke out that resulted in a full-scale civil war.
    • 1914 – 1933 CE – the effects of the First World War (1914-18) and the Great Depression (1929-33) were that the industrial powers of the west relaxed their grip on the Chinese market to focus their efforts on the war in Europe and economic affairs. This created opportunities for  local businesses to become established. Also, while the Western Gold Standard collapsed during the Great Depression, the Chinese were on a separate Silver Standard and was not affected as much by the Depression.
    • 1934 CE – Chiang Kai-Shek’s campaigns to suppress the communists finally succeeded, forcing the communists out of their “Red Bases” and under the leadership of Mao Zedong the Long March to the north occurred. Out of 30o,000 soldiers that left on the march, only 30,000 arrived at their destination in the north.
    • 1930s CE – the Japanese, seeing an un-unified and weakened Chinese government structure, began a campaign of invasions and imperial intentions towards China. From 1894 t0 1944 the Japanese launched a series of invasions, with a full-scale assault on east and southeast China from 1937 to 1944. The Communists turned their attention to fighting the Japanese. Chiangs’ Kuomintang focused on the unification of China rather than the defense of China against the onslaught from the Japanese. The Kuomintang found itself out of step with the general feeling of the populace. This caused eventually the fall of the Kuomintang and the rise of the Communists. The Communists, during the period of 1937-1945, found this period one that was ideal to spreading Communist propaganda, recruitment and military training.
    • 1931/7- 45 CE – Second Sino-Japanese War.
      • 1931 CE, Sept – the war began when the Japanese army set about seizing Manchuria.
      • 1933 CE – the conquest of Manchuria was completed. For the next four years there was relative peace in Asia.
      • 1937 CE – “The Marco Polo Bridge” incident (also known by other names) outside of Beijing rapidly developed into full-scale war between China and Japan.
      • 1938 CE – by the end of the year Japan had taken large areas of China and had forced Chiang Kai-shek’s forces to retreat to Chongqing. The Chinese refused to surrender, which Japan blamed on Western support.
      • Allied troops helped China during the Second World War, and eventually Japan was defeated and expelled out of China. China descended into civil war after the end of WWII. Due to the ineffectiveness of Chiang Kai-shek’s regime and its dismal war record, many were led to look to the Chinese Communist Party as a better alternative. This is when civil war broke out.
      • 1945 CE, Aug 15th – the Soviet Union’s invasion of Manchuria proved to be the final blow for Japan, and on August 15th Emperor Hirohito announced Japan’s surrender.
    • 1945 – 1949 CE – after the Second World War and the Second Sino-Japanese War, the civil war between the Communists and the Kuomintang resumed. The Communists won and the Kuomintang fled to Taiwan. The People’s Republic was then founded by the Communists.
    • 1949 CE – foundation of the People’s Republic of China. The communist party defeated the Japanese and the nationalists.
    • 1950 CE – non-aggression pact signed with the Soviet Union.
    • 1950 CE, Oct 1st – China, the People’s Liberation Army, invades and takes control of Tibet.
    • 1958-62 CE – “The Great Leap Forward” Mao Zedong’s five year plan.
    • 1959 CE – Tibet is absorbed into China, in a dispute between India and China for the territory.
    • 1966 CE – Chairman Mao launches his Cultural Revolution. Mao’s Little Red Book.
    • 1966 – 76 CE – The Gang of Four, a political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials. They came to prominence during the Cultural Revolution and were later charged with a series of treasonous crimes. The gang’s leading figure was Mao Zedong’s last wife Jiang Qing. The other members were Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen. The Gang of Four controlled the power organs of the Communist Party of China through the later stages of the Cultural Revolution, although it remains unclear which major decisions were made by Mao Zedong and carried out by the Gang, and which were the result of the Gang of Four’s own planning. The Gang of Four, together with disgraced general Lin Biao who died in 1971, were labeled the two major “counter-revolutionary forces” of the Cultural Revolution and officially blamed by the Chinese government for the worst excesses of the societal chaos that ensued during the ten years of turmoil.
    • 1979 CE – one child policy implemented in China. As of Jan 1st, 2016, two children were allowed.
    • 1980s CE – the democracy movement in China.
    • 1989 CE – Tiananmen Square protest and massacre. Also the end of the Soviet Union (1989-91), and fall of the Berlin Wall.
  • Egyptian
    •  2686 – 2,181 BCE – Old Kingdom period.
    • 2055 – 1550 BCE – Middle Kingdom period.
    • 1550 – 1069 BCE – New Kingdom period.
  • Europe
    • 1337 – 1475 CE – The Hundred Years’ War. Primarily between England and France. England started it and England lost.
    • 1347 – 1352 CE – The Black Death (bubonic plague) reduces the population between a quarter and a half.
    • 1618 – 1648 – The Thirty Years War.
      • Probably the bloodiest and most devastating European war until the 20th century. Drivers/causes of the war: various dynasties in England, France, Spain, Gemany, religion (Protestants against Catholics), the Peace of Augsburg (gave rulers the right to decide the religion of their subjects, which the subjects were not happy with), land/territorial expansion. People could and did change loyalties depending on their needs at their time. The Habsburg Empire: the Habsburgs begin the reconquest of Hungarian territory lost to the Ottoman Empire. The Habsburgs become the major dynastic power in Europe– the largest conglomeration of territories– Spain, Austria, Hungary and the former Duchy of Burgundy. Matthias had become emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (modern Germany) and appointed his cousin to Ferdinand (a staunch Catholic) as king of Bohemia which was predominantly Protestant. The Royal Council at Prague refused to listen to the Protestants objections to the king’s policies, and they threw two of the kings advisors out of the window (they didn’t die, they landed in a pile of garbage). The war was sparked by this event, known as the Defenestration of Prague. Emperor Matthias dies and is succeeded by Ferdinand II, who called on Maximillian of Bavaria and the Catholic League to invade Bohemia and suppress the Protestants. It was decreed that the by Easter 1626 Protestants in Bohemia must convert to Catholicism or leave the country. Meanwhile, in response to fears of the Hapsburg dynasty, England, the Netherlands, and Denmark join the Protestant League and Protestant German princes, to invade Germany and restore Frederick as emperor. Christian IV invades Germany. Ferdinand II and Christian IV agree to the Treaty of Lübeck. The Danes leave Germany. In 1611, Gustavus Adolphus inherits the throne in Sweden. He is a staunch Lutheran, so goes to the aid of the Protestants in Germany and invades Germany in 1630. France offers King Gustavus financial aid in his campaign against the Hapsburgs in France. The Catholic League besieges and takes Magdeburg in Germany and massacres its citizens. The League marches against King Gustavus and is defeated. Gustavus sends an army in Bohemia, marches into southern German and threatens Bavaria (the heart of the Catholic League). Catholic leaders sue for peace. Ferdinand sends an army to attack Protestants in Prague, then sends the army to march against the Swedes. The Swedes win but King Gustavus is killed. The Spanish Hapsburgs send an army to support their cousins in Germany. The French support the Protestants. Eventually everyone tired of war, it had degraded to a serious of skirmishes. Religious motivations for the war were almost forgotten and just became a fight for power. Ferdinand II died in 1637, succeeded by Ferdinand III. After complicated negotiations, the Peace of Westphalia was signed in 1648 (the treaty out of which the concept of our modern nation states began to emerge), and the Thirty Years War came to an end. France and Sweden profited most from the Peace of Westphalia, German princes were given more power, and in regards to religion princes and subjects would be free to follow the religion of their choice as long as it was Catholic, Lutheran or Reformed (instead of the previous system where the ruler determined the religion of all their subjects). Anabaptists were excluded from the agreement. The modern secular state began to develop. Roughly 8 million people died during the war.
    • 1637 – Descarte’s “Discourse in Method”.
    • 1648 – Treaty of Westphalia. The concept of the modern nation state begins to emerge.
    • 1653 – 1658 – Cromwell’s Protectorate.
    • 1848 – 1849 CE – Revolutions across Europe. They were successful for a while but then were put down. Some good things did come from the revolutions such as workers’ rights, democracy start to emerge. They did not succeed in destroying the capitalist class, which was a main driving force for the revolutions. Karl Marx writes his “Communist Manifesto.” For the next 60 years after the revolutions socialism was at the forefront of discussions and a legitimate movement, as a challenge to capitalism, unions were forming, all the way up to 1914. Socialism was a challenge to the whole capitalist structure, the solution to the danger of socialism was the First World War– divert the worker’s attention away from the growing domestic discontent and change people into patriots for nations.
    • At the beginning of the 20th century no country in the world had universal suffrage, only New Zealand has extended the vote to women. Democracy and universal suffrage gradually spread throughout the century.
    • Beginning of the 1800s the world’s population was around 1 billion, by the end of the 1800s the world’s population was around 2 billion, the world’s population more than doubled between 1940 and 2010 (to reach almost 7 billion).
    • World War I and II– the two world wars were responsible for more than 80 million deaths. The First World War was essentially a European territorial dispute. The Second World War also began as a European dispute but spread to the Pacific. European colonial control was largely destroyed between 1945 and 1970, but this was also a time of an economic “golden age” for the industrialized nations which came to end in the 1970s with the rise of oil prices. New nation states were created. Because of the rise in oil prices and its effects many nations, many developing nations were encouraged to take out huge loans, the repayment of which had detrimental effects on their subsequent economic and social development. One result was more localized wars– an estimated 25-30 million died in these wars.
    • World War I– 8.5 million people died in the fighting, plus up to 13 million civilians dying from the effects of war.
      • After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 Europe underwent a period of domestic transformation. New nation states such as Italy were created. The empires of the Ottomans and the Austro-Hungarians began to weaken.
      • 1871 CE– Prussia had been the smallest of the great powers and by 1871 had been replaced by a formidable, dynamic Germany, which single-handedly defeated the Austrian Empire in 1866 and then France in 1871. Between 1871 and 1913 Germany moved from being the second strongest nation in Europe to being the leading industrial power.
      • 1881 CE– Bismarck (Germany) makes an alliance with Russia and Austria-Hungary– “Three Emperor’s Alliance”.
      • 1882 CE– Bismarck (Germany) makes an alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy called the “Triple Alliance”.
      • 1894 CE– France breaks out of its isolation and makes an alliance with Russia, the Double Entente.
      • 1904 CE– Britain signed an entente with France.
      • 1907 CE– Britain signed an entente with Russia.
      • 1914 CE– first half of the year was peaceful, then there was a crisis in the Balkans. In 1908 Austria had annexed Bosnia into its empire. Serbian nationalists opposed Austrian rule. Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, heir to the Austrian throne, visited Sarajevo (Bosnia’s capital) and were assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. Austria’s response was to set about crushing Serbian nationalism. The Russians opposed Austria’s attempt to dominate Serbia. Germany promised to support the Austrians. The Russians mobilized their army. Then France and Germany mobilized their armies. The stage was set for a war to begin.
      • 1914 CE, August 1st– Germany move through Belgium (violating an agreement that Belgium was neutral) and into France in an effect to take Paris. War begins.
      • 1918CE, 11th November 11 a.m.– the Germans approach the entente powers for peace terms and the fighting ceases. The USA had entered the war by declaring war on Germany on April 6th, 1917, to protect it’s trade with Britain. There was widespread opposition in the USA about entering the war. The US government had to go around the country spreading propaganda, convincing the public for the need for war. Then they began to arrest and imprison anyone that wouldn’t support the war. This is the rise of American patriotism, shaped by the government. But the resources that the USA brought to the war meant that Germany began to run out of resources to the point that the war becomes unwinable for them.
    • Outcomes of World War I
      • 1919 CE – Paris Peace Conference resulted in the Treaty of Versailles: the Austro-Hungarian Empire was dismantled and new, smaller nation-states were formed including Czechoslovakia.
      • 1919 CE – Treaty of Saint-Germain: Austro-Hungarian Empire broken up into Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia, Austria and Hungary.
      • League of Nations: the Treaty of Versailles called for the establishment of a League of Nations to secure global peace. This was put forth by Woodrow Wilson, but he did not have support of the US government and the US didn’t ratify the agreement.
      • Germany: despite it’s loses Germany still retained enough potential to dominate Europe.
      • Second World War: the Treaty of Versailles and the dividing up of countries has been seen as one of the causes of the Second World War.
    • Great Depression – 1929-33 CE
      • In Germany and the USA industrial output fell 50 per cent, and 25 to 33 per cent of the labour force was unemployed.
      • In the 1920s, as they did in the 19th century, they believed that prosperity resulted from the least possible intervention in the economy. Few people would continue to believe this in the 1930s.
      • The “Wall Street Crash” in 1929 CE, which led to a fall in the money supply.
      • Germany had been ordered to pay large reparations after the First World War. When the American economy fell into depression, the US banks recalled their loans, causing the German banking system to collapse.
      • Latin America was already suffering a depression in the 1920s. The supply of agriculture products was rising faster than demand. Countries stockpiled large quantities.Like in Germany, the USA recalled their loans in Latin America. In an effect to stabilize the economies the surpluses were released onto the market, causing prices to collapse. Chile saw its exports drop by over 80 per cent. India and Brazil suffered a fall of over 60 per cent.
      • The Depression spread around the world because of flawed economic policies in other countries– when faced with falling export earnings governments overreacted by severely increasing tariffs on imports, further reducing trade. The initial response of every government was to cut their spending, as a result consumer demand reduced even further.
      • Deflationary policies were linked to exchange rates, which was linked to the gold standard. Governments were committed to maintaining fixed exchange rates, they were forced to keep interest rates high to persuade banks to buy and hold their currency. Since prices were falling, interest-rate repayments rose in real terms.
      • The First World War caused so much mistrust between governments that it was impossible for governments to work together to avoid the Great Depression.
      • In 1931 CE the US government recalled their loans from Europe, leading to the selling of European currencies and then the collapse of many European banks.
      • Gold standard– as a result of the collapse of many European banks the Gold Standard collapsed. From 1929 to 1934– two thirds of the world was on the Gold Standard, but by 1934 only a couple of European countries (I think Poland and France) remained using the Gold Standard. With a Gold Standard it easier to have a fixed exchange rate. Detaching from the Gold Standard means that you can have floating exchange rates.
      • Germany and Japan– the reaction to the Great Depression was that militaristic governments came to power and adopted the aggressive foreign policies that led to the Second World War. In Germany, Hitler adopted interventionist policies, developing a large work-creation scheme that had largely eradicated by 1936, and by rearmament.
      • Welfare systems– government intervention ultimately resulted in the creation of welfare systems.
      • “New Deal”, 1933 CE – Roosevelt became president in 1933 and promised a “New Deal” which would intervene to reduce unemployment by work-creation schemes. The most durable legacy of the New Deal was large public works projects– the Hoover Dam, flood control by the Tennessee Valley Authority, electric power, fertilizer and even education to depressed agricultural regions in the south. US Federal government spending from 1933-39 caused the migration of people from Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas towards California, and the southern states towards cities in the north like Chicago, Detroit, New York, etc.
      • Growth in the economy– was in fact due to rearmament.
    • World War II (Sept 1st, 1939 – May 7th, 1945)
      • As many as 60 million people are believed to have died. It is estimated that half of the casualties were civilians.
      • 1935 CE – Anglo-German Naval Pact ends German isolation.
      • 1935 CE – Italian invades Ethiopia.
      • 1936 CE – Hitler remilitarizes the Rhineland.
      • 1936 CE – the “Rome-Berlin” Axis was formed.
      • 1938 CE – Japan had seized large portions of China.
      • 1939 CE – Austria was virtually incorporated into the Reich.
      • 1939 CE, May – Italy and Germany sign the “Pact of Steel”
      • 1939 CE, August – Germany and the Soviet Union sign the “Non-Aggression Pact”
      • 1939 CE – Italy attacks Albania.
      • 1939 CE, Sept 1st – Hitler invades Poland, convinced that Britain would not intervene. The Second World War began. At the beginning of the war the Allies were Britain, France and Poland (the Polish government were in exile).
      • “Phoney War”– the first seven months of the war which was a period of calm and favored the Allies.
      • 1940 CE – Germany invades and takes Denmark, Norway, Belgium and the Netherlands. Then the Germans took France in a period of six weeks. France was allowed to form the “Vichy” regime under Marshall Pétain, which allowed France to have control of the remainder of France.
      • 1940 CE, June 10th – Mussolini brought Italy into the war.
      • 1940 CE, Sept 27th – Germany, Italy and Japan signed the Tripartite Pact. For Japan’s part, this was done in an effort to deter the United States from intervening in East Asia.
      • 1940 CE, Autumn – Britain surprisingly refuses to sue for peace after being bombarded in the Blitz. The Germans embark on an “indirect strategy” against Britain. Germany’s submarine fleet was given the task of cutting off communication and supply lines with the neutral United States. This strategy posed a danger to Britain until 1943.
      • 1940 – 1941 CE – Italy’s efforts to carve out a Mediterranean empire, which distracted and hindered Hitler’s plans. Britain inflicted defeats on Italy in Egypt and Greece, forcing Hitler to come to the aid of Mussolini, which distracted from Hitler’s expansionist goals on the Eastern front towards the Soviet Union.
      • 1941 CE, June 22 – Hitler begins his attack on the Soviet Union. Over 3 million Soviet prisoners of war were deliberately killed through starvation or overwork. Millions of civilians were enslaved on German farms and in factories. By winter, the Nazis had reached the suburbs of Moscow and encircled Leningrad. Aid for the Soviet Union came from the British and the United States. Stalin, discovering that Japan was not going to attack them in the east, transferred troops from the east to the west to fight the Germans on the front.
      • 1941 CE – the US and Britain impose economic sanctions on Japan, culminating in July 1941, in an embargo on oil exports to Japan. Threatened with total economic collapse, Japan had two options: 1. collapse, or 2. go to war. They chose the latter option and bombed Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7th, and led a rapid offensive into the western Pacific and Southeast Asia.
      • 1941 CE, Dec 7th – Japan bombs Pearl Harbor.
      • 1942 CE, June – Japan faced its first major defeat and reversal with the Battle of Midway. After these turning point the Japanese were on the retreat. US submarines began to cut off supply routes to Japan.
      • 1942 CE, Nov – Anglo-American forces landed in French Morocco and Algeria, and in conjunction with British forces in Egypt, drove the Axis back into Tunisia.
      • 1943 CE, May – the Axis forces are finally ejected out of North Africa. Britain then insists on attacking via Italy instead of the northern coast of France.
      • 1943 CE – the Soviets retake Stalingrad, marking a major turning point in the war. From that point onward the Soviets pushed the Germans further and further back, out of Soviet territory and back into Germany. Berlin fell to Soviet forces two years later. The Second World War in Europe was primarily a struggle between Germany and the Soviet Union.
      • 1944 CE, June – the Western Allies finally felt confident enough to launch attacks via the northern coast of France, landing troops in Normandy. The Allies fought dogged German troops and pushed them eastward, while the Soviets were pushing westward. The war ended when the Allied forces in the west met the Soviet forces coming from the east.
      • 1945 CE, Nov –the Allied forces in the west met the Soviet forces coming from the east. They met west of Berlin and Vienna. Both of these cities were split into four divided sections after the war. At this time Berlin was the capital of Germany, and Vienna was the capital of Austria.
      • “Final Solution” – by the end of the war, 6 million Jews and those considered “defective” had been exterminated. Many died when they were forced to march away from the advancing Allies.
      • 1945 CE, May 8th – the Allies accept Germany’s surrender. This was week after Hitler’s suicide.
      • 1945 CE, Aug 6th and 9th – on August 6, 1945 an American B-29 bomber dropped the world’s first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Three days later, a second B-29 dropped another atomic bomb on Nagasaki. An estimated 140,000 were killed.
      • 1945 CE, Aug 15th – the Soviet Union’s invasion of Manchuria proved to be the final blow for Japan, and on August 15th Emperor Hirohito announced Japan’s surrender.
    • 1947 CE– international tensions did not reduce, but morphed into a “Cold War”. There were wars all over the world during this time– international wars and civil wars, especially in Africa, Asia, and Central and South America.
    • 1945 CE onward
      • 1948 – 1951 CE – the United States announced the European Recovery Program (ERP, often known as the Marshall Plan), funds enabled the countries of Western Europe to import goods from the United States.
      • 1950 – 2000s CE – all of Western Europe experienced a time of material prosperity.
      • 1950 CE – the European Payments Union (EPU).
      • 1950 CE – France suggests the formation of a common market for coal and steel.
      • 1951 CE – France negotiates the Treaty of Paris with the “Benelux” countries, West Germany and Italy. It created the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). This lead to the EEC.
      • 1957 CE – EEC (European Economic Community) set up by the Treaty of Rome, and begins operating in 1958 CE.
      • 1958 CE – the EPU had fulfilled its role, but the rapid expansion in trade had resulted in the increasing integration of the European countries.
      • 1967 CE – the EEC was renamed the EC (European Community).
      • 1979 CE – the European Monetary System was introduced.
      • 1992 CE – the Treaty of the European Union (EU).
      • 1995 CE – The EU consisted of 15 countries.
      • 1991 CE, Jan 1st – the single European currency (the Euro) was introduced.
      • 1999 CE – the euro is introduced for electronic transfers.
      • 2002 CE – the euro is introduced as notes and coins, and it became the sole currency in 12 nations.
      • 2004 CE – the EU is expanded by a further 10 countries.
      • 2007 CE – two more countries join the EU.
      • 2007 CE – the financial crisis began and affected all European countries. Worst hit were the Republic of Ireland, Greece, Spain and Portugal.
      • 2009 CE – the Lisbon Treaty came into force, creating the roles of European President and de facto EU Foreign Minister
    • 1989-91 CE– the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.
  • France
    • 1524 CE – Verrazano sails along the coast of the New World from Cape Fear to Newfoundland, determining that earlier voyages of Columbus and John Cabot were to a single landmass.
    • 1622 CE – Cardinal Richelieu comes to power, becoming a cardinal. In 1624, he becomes Louis XIII’s chief minister. He sought to consolidate royal power and crush domestic factions, particularly the Huguenots. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strong, centralized state.
    • 1642 CE – Louis XIV (“the sun king”) inherits the throne from Louis XIII, at the age of five years old. He had no patience with heretics or dissidents, and so took strong measures to stamp out French Protestantism and force conversion to Catholicism by persuasion, buying conversions, and then a policy of violence.
      • 1685 CE – Louis XIV issues the Edict of Fontainebleau, abolishing the provisions of the Edict of Nantes, and making it illegal to be a Protestant in France. A mass exodus immediately ensued– French Huguenots fled to Switzerland, Germany, England, the Netherlands and North America. Officially, after the edict, there were no more Protestants in France. In truth many continued to practice in secret– in open fields and woods under the cover of night.
      • Christians of the Desert– what the Huguenots called themselves after the persecution noted above.
      • Camisards– peasant Protestant rebels, only a few hundred, who worked normally but the rest of the time gathered together to attack Royal troops, and kept an army of 25,000 busy. Their resistance continued to 1709. Their resistance became legendary.
      • 1715– the first synod of the French Reformed Church, led by Antoine Court. He mentored clandestine preachers at a seminary in exile, founded in Lausanne, Switzerland. The preachers returned to their homelands to spread the Reformed Church. By 1767, when Antoine Court died at 83, Reformed Protestantism was firmly rooted in France. Persecution of Protestants continued in France until 1787 when Louis XVI finally decreed religious tolerance.
      • Voltaire– the period above had caused many to distrust dogma and doctrine. Voltaire was one such person. He defended the Protestant cause because he considered intolerance absurd and immoral.
    • 1789, July 4th – The French Revolution.
    • 1789, July 14th – The storming of the Bastille.
    • 1796 – 1815 CE – Napoleonic Europe. (1767 – 1821 CE – Napoleon life).
    • 1801 – 1804 CE – Napoleon passes a body of laws called the Napoleonic Civil Code.
    • 1804 CE – Napoleon becomes Emperor.
    • 1894 CE– France breaks out of its isolation by making an alliance with Russia– “the Double Entente.”
    • 1950s CE – stability after the Second World War is attained under General de Gaulle.
  • Germany / Holy Roman Empire
    • 1100s-1300s – The Crusades, during which Germany sent many people.
    • 1348 – Black Plague throughout western Europe. (1/3 to 1/2 population die).
    • 1337 – 1475 – Hundred Years’ War.
    • 1519 – 1556 – Charles V (of Germany) and I (Spain) form the House of Hapsburg. Ruled Spain, Greater Germany and the Netherlands. A staunch Catholic. Rivals: Francis I of France, the Pope and the Papal States, various princes and bishops of the Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman Turks, Luther, Frederick the Wise, Calvin, Anabaptists.
    • 1618 – 1648 – Thirty Years War. (1/3 to 1/2 of Europe dies, 1/2 to 2/3 of Germans die). Most of the fighting during the war is in Germany.
    • Early 1800s – Napoleonic Wars. Germany comes out ahead. Many die.
    • 1806 CE – The end of the Holy Roman Empire, Francis II abdicates after defeat by Napoleon.
    • 1848 CE – Karl Marx, “Communist Manifesto”
    • 1862 CE – Otto von Bismarck becomes chancellor of Prussia.
    • 1914 – 1918 – World War I. Germany loses. (37 million die, total).
    • 1933 – 1945 – Hitler and World War II. (40 million die, total).
    • 1871 CE– Prussia had been the smallest of the great powers and by 1871 had been replaced by a formidable, dynamic Germany, which single-handedly defeated the Austrian Empire in 1866 and then France in 1871. Between 1871 and 1913 Germany moved from being the second strongest nation in Europe to being the leading industrial power.
    • 1881 CE– Count Otto von Bismarck, made an alliance with Russia and Austria-Hungary, known as the “Three Emperor’s Alliance”, a move to keep France isolated.
    • 1882 CE– Count Otto von Bismarck makes an alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy called the “Triple Alliance.”
    • 1890 CE– fall of Count Otto von Bismarck, after which Germany’s foreign policy became increasingly concerned with the desire for expansion.
  • Greek city states and Greek Empire
    • 485 – 425 BCE – Herodotus. Greek historian.
    • 404 BCE – end of the Greek Empire.
    • 399 BCE – Socrates dies (executed by being made to drink hemlock).
    • 310 BCE – Greeks had circumnavigated Britain.
    • 1947 CE – Greek Civil War. USA gives aid to defeat communists.
    • 1967 CE – Greece experienced a bitter civil war, and then a military coup in 1967, and seven years of dictatorship that gave way to a democratic system in 1974.
  • Hebrews / Jewish people / Israel / Old Testament
    • 1,250 – 1,050 BCE – Israel becomes a people. Canaanites depart from cities and into the hill country.
    • 1,020 – 1,000 BCE – Saul. Israel appoints a chieftain to protect them from Philistines (Sea Peoples).
    • 1,000 – 960 BCE – David becomes king.
    • 960 – 922 BCE – King Solomon. Creates an empire in the style of Egypt.
    • 922 BCE – Israel splits in two. Civil war Israel (north) & Judah (south). Period of many of the prophets.
    • 722 BCE – Assyrian conquest of Israel.
    • 641-609 BCE – King Josiah’s centralizing reforms in Judah. Worship outside of temple made illegal.
    • 587 BCE – Babylonian conquest of Judah.
    • 587 – 539 BCE – Exile of Hebrews in Babylon.
    • 539 BCE – Cyrus of Persia conquers Babylon. Topples Babylonian Empire. Jewish exiles are encouraged to return to Judah (now a Persian province). Encouraged to rebuild Jerusalem and the temple.
    • 515 BCE – 2nd Temple. Temple is completed & rededicated with financial support from Persia.
    • 445 – 430 BCE – Nehemiah, Persian-appointed governor of Judah, rebuilds walls of Jerusalem.
    • 404 BCE – the end of the Greek Empire.
    • 398 BCE – Ezra enforces “the Law” and founds a temple bureaucracy.
    • 333 BCE – Alexander the Great (Greek Empire) defeats the Persian Emperor Darius.
    • 323 BCE – Alexander dies suddenly in Babylon. No clearly defined successor. 20 years of chaos.
    • 301 BCE – Ptolemies (Egyptian Greeks) consolidate power in Palestine.
    • 198 BCE – Seleucids (Syrian Greeks) defeat Ptolemies in Palestine.
    • 175 – 164 BCE – Seleucid Empire, ruled by Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Harsh persecution of Jews.
    • 167 BCE – Seleccid oppression leads to Maccabean Revolt and years of resistance.
    • 140 – 63 BCE – Jewish Hasmonean Dynasty rules Judah. Extends territory via conquests. Maccabees conquer Galilee in 104 BCE and subject them to the laws of the Judeans.
    • 63 BCE – Roman General Pompey sacks Jerusalem. Defiles the Temple. Judah becomes Roman colony.
    • 40 – 37 BCE – Herod the Great reconquers Judea with Rome’s blessing.
    • 4 BCE – Herod the Great’s death. Kingdom is divided among his sons. Mass protests erupt.
    • 4 BCE – Jesus of Nazareth is born.
    • 27 BCE – 14 CE – Caesar Augustus (formerly Octavian), first Roman Emperor.
    • 6 CE – Pharisees. A faction of scribes who gained prominence in the temple-state.
    • 14 – 37 CE – Reign of Emperor Tiberius Caesar.
    • 29 CE – Jesus is crucified.
    • 1945 CE onwards – Israel, Palestine in conflict
      • Mass influx of refugees from Nazi-occupied territories.
      • UN suggestion that Palestine be divided into Arab and Jewish states, with Jerusalem as an international zone.
      • 1947 CE – civil war in the region begins and escalates into war between Israel, Egypt, Syria, and Iraq. Arabs are defeated in July 1949.
      • 1948 CE, May 14 – Israel proclaimed as a state.
      • 1949 CE – Arabs defeated in war between Israel, Egypt, Syria and Iraq.
      • 700,000 Palestinian refugee flee to camps in the West Bank and Jerusalem.
      • 1950 CE – remaining Arab parts of Palestine annexed by Jordan.
      • 1950 CE – Gaza occupied by Egypt.
      • 1956, 1967 and 1973 CE – Israel at war with its neighbors resulting in Israeli occupation of the West Bank, East Jerusalem, Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights.
      • 1964 CE – The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) begins a guerrilla war with Israel.
      • 1970 CE onward – Lebanon: becomes a major base for Palestinian guerrilla warfare against Israel.
      • 1975-91 CE – Lebanon: civil war, with victory for the muslims.
      • 1987 CE – Palestinian uprising (infitada).
      • 1993 CE – The Oslo Agreement led to limited self-rule for the Palestinians in parts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
      • 2000 CE – A second Palestinian uprising (infitada) breaks out.
      • 2000 CE – Lebanon: Israel withdraws from southern Lebanon. Syria-backed Hizbollah forces move in.
      • 2005 CE – New president of the Palestinian Authority elected. Peace process is the platform he runs on.
      • 2006 CE – Lebanon: Hizbollah attacks Israel. Air and ground invasion by Israel.
      • 2007 CE – radical politicians won elections in the Gaza Strip. Region placed under an economic blockade.
      • 2008 CE – rockets attacks from the Gaza Strip into Israel provokes a major Israeli air and ground assault.
  • Hittite Empire
    • 1,700 – 700 BCE – located in Anatolia (modern day Turkey).
  • India
    • 1526 CE – Mughal Empire established (Muslim warrior descendants of the Mongols).
      • Akbar, emperor, 1556 – 1605 CE
    • Territorial disputes between India and Pakistan: 1947, 1965, 1971, 1999.
    • 1920s CE – protests against British rule, led by Mohandas Ghandi and Jawaharlal Nehru were campaigns of non-violent civil disobedience.
    • 1937 CE – provincial elections in which Congress won power in a number of provinces.
    • 1939 – 45 CE – a number of Congress members resign in protest at India’s involvement in WWII without prior consultation. The Muslim League committed to forming a Muslim state after WWII (Pakistan). The British offered India independence after WWII in return for support during the war. Congress protests with the massive “Quit India” campaign which resulted in its leaders being imprisoned until 1945.
    • 1943 CE – Bengal Famine – the high price of mobilizing India’s economy to support the efforts in WWII. Over 1 million people died.
    • 1945 CE – Britain, lacking the resources or the will to rule, sought to accelerate India’s independence.
    • 1947 CE – India and Pakistan become independent countries. Millions of Hindus and Muslims migrate to live in either of the two new states. Over 1 million are killed as opposing religions clashed. Since independence India has remained the world’s largest democracy.
    • 1966 CE – Indira Ghandi becomes Prime Minister.
    • 1972 CE – Bangladesh was created.
    • 1984 CE – Indira Ghandi assassinated by Sikh separatists.
  • Indonesia
    • The Republic of Indonesia was formed in 1949 CE.
  • Japan
    • 1641 – 1868 CE – Japanese isolation. The Tokugawa shogunate of Japan enforced a policy which it called kaikin. The policy prohibited foreign contact with most outside countries.
    • 1853 CE – US Commodore Perry visits Japan and demands that the ports be opened to the Americans.
    • 1867/8 CE – Meiji becomes the supreme ruler of Japan. (Rules until 1912 CE.)
    • 1877 CE (September 24th) – Saigo Takamori and his samurai rebel fighters faced the modern army of Japan and were slaughtered. Twelve years after his death he was pardoned by the emperor and became an enduring national hero.
    • 1895 CE – Japan gains control of Korea after the First Sino-Japanese War.
    • 1895 – 45 CE – Taiwan is under Japanese control.
    • 1910 CE – Japan colonizes Korea.
    • 1937 – 45 CE – Japan invades China and the Second Sino-Japanese War occurred. Japan was the only country in the world to expand its territory during the inter-war years.
    • 1941 CE – Japan declares war on the USA.
    • 1945 CE – after WWII Japan was left without an empire and an industrial economy in ruins. The emperor was retained as a ceremonial figure, but the power was exercised by a legislature elected by universal suffrage. An expenditure of around $3.5 billion by the United States military during the Korean War stimulated the economy into growth.
    • 1952 CE – President McArthur in the USA. The United States administration came to an end in Japan. Japan had been re-defined as a bastion of anti-communism in East Asia.
    • 1960s CE – average annual industrial growth in the 1960s exceeded 10 per cent. By 1955, Japan’s industrial production had recovered to pre-war levels.
    • 1973-74 CE – Trade friction with the United States and a sharp revaluation of the yen preceded the oil crisis. Japan was producing small, fuel-efficient cars until the threat of tariffs from countries in North America and Europe on cars exported from Japan forced its manufacturers to increase production in these regions. Industry shifted towards “knowledge-intensive” sectors such as electronics.
    • 1985 CE – Plaza Agreement between USA, Japan, France, Germany, and the UK, sought to resolve global trade imbalances– Japan had been so successful in its exports that they had to form an agreement to force expansion of Japan’s domestic demand/boost imports by Japan and consumption by their population of their own products. Japanese industry’s reaction was a flurry of direct investment in East and Southeast Asia– Japanese manufacturers sought to avoid high Japanese wages by moving production overseas, this process was known as the “hollowing out” of Japan. This created demand for Japanese products in these countries. Tokyo was transformed into one of the world’s three main financial markets.
    • 1990s CE – the “bubble economy” crashed, very similar to what happened in the USA/elsewhere in 2008, low interest rates, the willingness of banks to lend against property assets, then when land prices collapsed the country went into a financial crisis and the government had to shore up the ailing banking sector.
    • 2009 CE – the end of an almost unbroken rule of the Liberal Democrats for 50 years. This was brought about by the 2007 economic crisis– led to a landslide victory for the opposition party.
  • Korea
    • 1882 CE – Amity Treaty with the USA.
    • 1895 CE – First Sino-Japanese War that takes place largely in Korea. Korea comes under Japanese control after this.
    • 1910 CE – Japan colonizes Korea.
    • 1945 CE – The divide of Korea into North and South as a result of World War II.
    • 1950-53 CE– Korean War. After the Second World War North Korea was under the control of a communist-inspired, Soviet-backed regime. South Korea was supported by the USA. The dividing line was the 38th Parallel. In June 1950, North Koream troops advanced across the Parallel in a bid to unify the country. The Chinese supported the North Koreans. The UN supported the USA. A truce was signed  in July 1953. The war resulted in 4 million casualties.
  • Latin America
    • 1791 – 1804 CE – Haitian Revolution. The only slave uprising that was successful. Was a French colony that was called Saint Dominique. After independence the country changed its name to Haiti. At the same time, in Europe, Napoleon was in power and became emperor in 1804. In 1804 Haiti announces its independence. France recognized Haiti’s independence in 1825. The USA refused to recognize the independence until 1862 because they feared a nation that came out of a slave rebellion.
    • 1800 – 1825 CE – Very quick change from colonies to independence across the continent. The Spanish are forced and the creoles step into positions of power that were left vacant. The creoles largely keep the systems in place that are already there.
    • 1821 CE – Central America becomes independent. It was originally part of Mexico.
    • 1825 CE – Portugal recognizes the independence of its former colony, Brazil.
    • ‘Peninsulares’– those appointed to rule by Europeans. ‘Criollos’ – native descendants of earlier immigrants. ‘Mestizos’ – mixed race of Indian and European.
    • The popes were against rebellions and independence of the Latin American countries. In 1827, Pope Leo XII decided to name the first bishops for Colombia. Pope Gregory XVI officially acknowledged the existence of the new republics in Latin America and named bishops for them. In Mexico, the clergy on the ground, sided with the people and the rebellions.
    • 1898 CE – The Spanish-American War resulted in the ejection of Spain from Latin America. This signaled the rise of the United States as an imperial power in the region.
    • 20th century – first half the oligarchs whose socio-political dominance had been almost absolute in the 1800s found their control of the state challenged by a rising middle class.
    • 1914 – 18 CE – during the First World War Latin America found itself international trade and finance. Production fell and there was a high level of mass unrest.
    • 1930s CE – the Latin American could do little more than defend itself against the effects of the Depression. A census began to develop that Latin America needed to adopt an economic strategy of urgent industrialization.
    • 1939 – 45 CE – The US administration ensured production of raw materials for support of the war efforts in the Second World War, so that by 1945 the United States had secured hegemony in South America. During the Second World War Latin American countries came to the conclusion that the USA was their only hope at survival and supported the USA militarily and economically, allowing for the USA to come into the continent economically for resources with a resulting imperialistic nature to the USA’s presence in South America, and hence it’s intervention in events in Latin America ever since.
    • Rise of the military – one of the effects of the First and Second World Wars was the rise of the military in South America. The armed forces had began a process of professionalization. By the 1920s the military had a strong sense of corporate identity. Military coups took place in Argentina, Brazil, Peru in 1930. The military was content to intervene only temporarily, but the military became increasingly convinced that it was the only institution which could serve the national interest the best.
    • 1940s and 50s – Most governments ruled by populist regimes. Argentina’s Juan Domingo Perón (1946-55) is the classic example. The USA too care to consolidate its political alliances in Latin America but also military links, supplying most of Latin Americas weapons and military training.
    • 1945 CE onwards – Introduction of full suffrage, women being able to vote by the mid-1950s, literacy qualifications dropping.
    • 1946 CE –Argentina: USA attempts to stop the election of Perón.
    • 1952 CE – Bolivia: USA neutralizes Popular Revolution with economic pressure.
    • 1954 CE – Guatemala – US-backed right-wing coup.
    • 1959-62 CE – Cuba: Nationalist Revolution (1959), alliance with USSR (1960), USA declares economic embargo & failed Bay of Pigs invasion (1961), Cuban Missile Crisis (1962).
    • 1960s – 70s CE – Military coups and the rise of the military. The military leaders argued that only they were capable of bringing about national development. They did not feel the country was ready for democratic elections.
    • 1965 CE – Dominic Republic: USA intervention to suppress communist influence.
    • 1970s CE– in Argentina and Chile thousands of opponents of the governments “disappeared”.
    • 1970-73 CE – Chile: covert intervention by USA against Marxist government of Popular Unity.
    • 1973 CE – Chile – US-backed right-wing forces overthrow Allende’s socialist government.
    • 1973 CE – Oil prices rise. Latin American countries seem to be an ideal target for loans.
    • 1979 CE – Nicaragua: Revolution. USA funds counter-revolutionary movement in 1980s.
    • Military in power: Brazil (1964-85), Argentina (1976-83), Chile (1973-89).
    • 1980s CE – US interest rates rose dramatically. Latin American countries found themselves unable to pay their loans. The 1980s are referred to as the “lost decade” in Latin America. A process of re-democratization began. By 1990 CE there were elected governments in every country, except for Cuba.
    • 1980-88 CE – El Salvador: USA covert intervention to defeat left-wing guerillas.
    • 1989 CE – Grenada: USA invasion to restore stable government.
    • 1989 CE – Panama: USA invasion to arrest President Noriega on drug trafficking charges.
    • 1990s CE – capital investment returns to Latin America It’s accepted that much of the original debts will not be repaid.
    • 1994 CE – Haiti: USA negotiated invasion to restore democracy.
    • 1994 CE – NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement).
  • Malaysia
    • The Federation of Malaysia was formed in 1963. Singapore was an original member but left in 1965 CE to be a city-state.
  • Mexico
    • 1829 CE – Mexico abolishes slavery.
    • 1846 – 1848 CE – USA vs Mexico War. President James K Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor into territory that was disputed with Mexico, and proceed as far as necessary to provoke the first shot from Mexico. Ulysses S. Grant declared, “We were sent to provoke a fight, but it was essential that Mexico should commence it.”
    • 1910 CE – the Mexican Revolution begins. This was the world’s first major social revolution of the 20th century.
  • Muslim / Islam
    • 622 CE – Muhammed flees to Medina.
    • 1501 – 1736 CE – Safavid Empire (Iran).
  • Ottoman Empire / Turks
    • 1453 CE – The Ottoman Turks take Constantinople. The Fall of Constantinople.
    • 1683 CE – Defeat of the Ottomans outside Vienna– often said to be the beginning of the decline, which took approximately 240 years to end after World War I when the empire was broken up in 1924.
    • 1915 (April 24) – 1917 CE – The Armenian Holocaust/Genocide. There were 2 million Armenians living in the empire. Through systematic extermination 1.5 million of them were murdered, only 400,000 remained.
    • 1922 CE, Nov. 1st – official end of the Ottoman Empire. World War I effectively saw the end of the Empire.
    • The Ottoman Turks deported an estimated 1.75 million Armenians from eastern Anatolia during the First World War.
  • Pakistan
    • 1947 CE – along with India, gains its independence. East and West Pakistan.
    • 1958 CE – Pakistan’s military gains power.
    • 1972 CE – Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman’s separatist movement in East Pakistan won in the elections in 1970. West Pakistan sent troops to restore order, civil war broke out, West Pakistan loses and independent Bangladesh is created in 1972.
  • Persian Empire
    • 651 CE – Persian empire falls to Muslim armies.
  • Phoenician Empire
    • 1,500 – 300 BCE.
  • Portugal
    • 1474 CE – The Portuguese cross the Equator.
    • 1488 CE – Bartholomew Dias reaches the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa.
    • 1494 CE – Treaty of Tordesillas divides the world between Spain (Crown of Castile) in the west and Portugal in the east.
    • 1974 CE – Portuguese Revolution against the dictatorship. The new government committed to rapid decolonization of Portuguese African colonies.
    • 1985 CE – democracy emerges in Portugal.
  • Roman Empire
    • 27 BCE – 14 CE – Caesar Augustus, first Roman Emperor.
    • 1st century CE – Rome had established links with China.
    • 378 CE – The Visigoths defeat the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople.
    • 410 CE – Visigoths bring about the Fall of Rome (Emperor: Honorius)
    • 455 CE – Vandals sack Rome.
  • Russia
    • 1861 CE – Emancipation of the serfs.
    • 1891 CE – Famine.
    • 1891 – 1904 CE – Trans-Siberian Railway built, links Vladivostock to Moscow.
    • 1905 CE – Workers went on strike set up councils, or “soviets” in every major city of the Russian Empire.
    • 1905 – 1907 CE – Revolution. Peasant revolts, main grievance: the issue of gentry landholding.
    • 1917 CE – Russian Revolution: the Bolshevik revolution and an ensuing Russian Civil War. The Russians found themselves incapable of holding onto their empire after expending so many resources on World War I. Soon afterwards Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania gained their independence. Lenin and Stalin worked closely together. Tsar Nicholas II abdicated. Power was then shared by a Provisional Government and the socialist Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies.The slogan of the Bolshevik, led by Lenin, were “peace, bread and land” and “all power to the soviets.” Civil war broke out between the anti-communist “White” armies opposed the Red Army, led by Leon Trotsky. Lenin took rapid steps to impose nationalization and centralization in a process known as “war communism.” Peasant revolts in 1921 forced Lenin to introduce the New Economic Policy (NEP). Lenin died in 1924 leaving behind two conflicting policies: war communism and the NEP. There was a struggle for power by Lenin’s followers, which Stalin won. Lenin had not thought that Stalin was an appropriate leader for the country. Stalin launched a drive to catch up with the west with a ten year goal to industrialize. Industrial advance was impressive with various costs: the populations of the main cities doubled between 1928 and 1933, urban infrastructure could not keep pace, prison camp labor, vast expansion of concentration camps of the civil war. The policy led to economic disaster leading to catastrophic famine. Opposition to the speed of force of the changes led to the great terror of 1937-38 with show trials of party leaders and the deportation of millions of citizens to labor camps across the country.
    • 1917 – 1922 CE – Russian Civil War.
    • 1922 CE – Formation of the Soviet Union.
    • 1929-53 CE– Joseph Stalin, tens of millions of people were sent to the deaths in forced labor camps.
    • Affects of the Second World War
      • The Soviet Union was victorious in the Second World War but was devastated by the loss of 26 million people.
      • A severe shortage of labor, aggravated by the deportation to Siberia or Central Asia of returning prisoners of war.
      • The post war Soviet Union consisted of 15 soviet republics.
      • After 1945 Stalin tried re-establish control. Collective farms were re-instated, efforts to develop heavy industry, and the return to the use of terror as a way of controlling the population.
      • Stalinism extended to the whole of Eastern Europe.
      • Eastern bloc regulated from 1949 onwards by the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON, 1949 to 1991. Members: Jan 1949– Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Soviet Union; Feb 1949– Albania; 1950– East Germany; 1962– Mongolia; 1972– Cuba; 1978– Vietnam).
      • 1949 CE – Russia produces it’s first nuclear bomb.
      • 1953 CE – Stalin dies. Nikita Krushchev took over control next.
      • Nikita Krushschev’s leadership – Political prisoners were released from labor camps, emphasis was placed on agriculture, housing an the production of consumer goods. He poured money into nuclear and space research. “Virgin Lands” scheme to grow maize across northern Kazakh– resulting soil erosion ruined 15,440 square miles of land and forced the Soviet Union to import grain.
      • 1955 CE – signing of the Warsaw Pact. Only Yugoslavia developed a non-Stalinist form of communism.
      • 1956 CE – increased liberalization led to dissident movements. Poland and Hungary rose against Soviet rule. Hungary wanted to leave the Warsaw Pact and was invaded by the Soviet Union.
      • 1960 CE – Krushchev’s policies led to a split with China.
      • 1960 CE – relations with the West soured with the shooting down of a US reconnaissance plane over the Soviet Union, them the building of the Berlin Wall, and nuclear missiles sited in Cuba.
      • 1961 CE – building of the Berlin Wall.
      • 1962 CE – the siting of nuclear weapons in Cuba (Cuban missile crisis).
      • 1964 CE – Krushchev ousted by the Politburo. Brezhnev and Kosygin ruled next.
    • Exploitation of the Eastern bloc’s rich mineral resources led to serious pollution. The Afghan War was more than the economy could sustain. Subsidies didn’t help, quantity over quality was emphasized, therefore poor consumer goods left people to not spend their money and save it, and this contributed further to economic decline.
    • 1970s CE – Eastern Europe economic decline set in. Loans from Western banks were harder to arrange.
    • 1979 CE – the Cold War detente ended when the USSR invaded Afghanistan.
    • Dec 25, 1979 – Feb 15, 1989 CE – Soviet-Afghan War.
    • 1985 CE – Gorbachev comes to power. He recognized the need for the economy to go under a radical reform, and that the cost to the environment and people’s health had been catastrophic. Damage to Lake Baikal from industrial effluent was an issue, as was the drying up of the Aral Sea. Gorbachev’s policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) and democratization.
    • The reforms of Gorbachev led to the withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan in 1989 and the ending of Soviet control in Eastern Europe.
    • 1989 – 1990 CE – the “People’s Revolutions” leading to the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
    • 1991 CE, Dec. 25th – End of the Soviet Union. Hammer and Sickle flag lowered from the Kremlin for the last time.
    • 1991 CE – the formal dissolution of the Warsaw Pact. The Cold War officially comes to an end.
  • Spain
    • 1492 CE – Christopher Columbus sets sail to find a new route to Asia. Runs into the New World instead.
    • 1494 CE – Treaty of Tordesillas divides the world between Spain (Crown of Castile) in the west and Portugal in the east.
    • 1936 – 1939 CE – the Spanish Civil War. General Franco wins.
    • 1939 – 1975 CE – the rule of General Franco until his death, followed by the restoration of the monarchy.
    • 1977 CE – free elections resumed in Spain.
  • Sri Lanka / Ceylon
    • 1948 CE – gains its independence.
    • 1960 CE – Mrs Sirimavo Bandaranaike becomes the world’s first female Prime Minister.
    • 1972 CE – Mrs Bandaranaike changes the country’s name from Ceylon to Sri Lanka.
    • 1983 – 2009 CE – civil war between the government and the Tamil Rebel’s. The government wins.
  • Sweden
    • 1632 – King Gustavus Adolphus killed in battle during Thirty Years War. He basically brought the Thirty Years War to a stalemate, leading to the Treaty of Westphalia.
  • Turkey
    • 1923 CE – formation of the Turkish Republic after World War I. Shorn of the responsibilities of running an Empire (the Ottoman Empire) the Turks, led by Ataturk drove out the British and the French and established a republic.
  • United States of America
    • 1492 CE – Christopher Columbus, expecting Asia, runs into the New World instead.
    • 1607 – Founding of Jamestown, Virginia. First British colony. Site of massacre.
    • 1620 – Pilgrims on the Mayflower arrive.
    • 1630 – 1642 – Puritan migration to the New World (during Thirty Years War).
    • 1638 – Founding of Providence.
    • 1656 – Quakers persecuted in Massachusetts.
    • 1775 – 1783 CE – The American War of Independence.
    • 1776 CE – The Declaration of Independence.
    • Late 18th Century – The Second Great Awakening.
    • 1803 CE – The Louisiana Purchase. Thomas Jefferson purchases a great swathe of land in the Midwest for $15 million from the French.
    • 1804 – 6 CE – Lewis and Clark Expedition from St. Louis to the Pacific Coast.
    • 1812 CE – American war with Britain.
    • 1830 CE – The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830, authorizing the president to grant unsettled lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within existing state borders. A few tribes went peacefully, but many resisted the relocation policy.
    • 1835 – 37 CE – The Trail of Tears. Native Americans pushed from the Southwest into the interior by the Indian Removal Act.
    • 1845 CE – The term “manifest destiny” is first used specifically to US expansion. President James Monroe proclaimed the doctrine first in 1823.
    • 1846 – 48 CE – The Mexican War.
    • 1848 CE – Gold Rush in California.
    • 1853 CE – The Gadsden Purchase.
    • 1860 CE – The election of Abraham Lincoln as President. At the time there were 4 million slaves in the southern United States.
    • 1861-65 CE – American Civil War.
      • Union – urbanization in the northeast.
      • Confederacy – plantation owners, mainly agricultural lands in the south, slaves and indentured servants.
    • 1861-68 CE and 1875-90 CE – The Indian Wars.
    • 1862 CE – The Homestead Act.
    • 1863 CE, Jan 1st – Abraham Lincoln signs the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed all slaves in the Confederacy (although it did not apply to the Union states in which slavery was still permitted).
    • 1867 CE – Alaska purchased from the Russians.
    • 1876 CE – Battle of Little Bighorn.
    • 1890 CE – Battle of Wounded Knee. It was a massacre, there was no resistance from the Natives.
    • 1900 CE onward
      • 1900 CE – the population was around 76 million. More than half lived in either the northeast or the Midwest. Over 87 per cent of the population was white, just over 10 per cent were African American. A large percentage still lived on farms.
      • 1900 CE – most African Americans were politically and socially marginalized.
      • Industrial boom of the early 20th century led to a migration of African Americans to the northeast and Midwest where they were needed for factory labor.
      • The politics of the early 20th century was that the Democrats were loyally supported by southern whites, for reasons stretching back to the civil war and the Republicans and the emancipation of slaves. The backbone of the Republican support was the industrial and agricultural northeast and the Midwest. This began to change in the era of the Great Depression (1929-33) with the introduction of the New Deal that led to welfare support for those struggling.
      • 1919 CE – the start of prohibition.
      • 1920s CE onward – a more restrictive approach to immigration was implemented, a quota system was introduced for each nationality based on the percentage if the existing US population of that nationality. This enabled northern European immigrants to be favored.
      • 1930s CE onward – from the 1930s onward, because of the New Deal and welfare systems etc, the Democrats won the majority of seats in Congress more often than the Republicans.
      • After the Second World War people began to migrate from industrialized northeast and Midwest to the Pacific region, where high-technology industries were being developed. The mobility of labor helped the USA remain more flexible economically.
      • 1945 CE – the USA produced half of the world’s goods.
      • 1945 CE, August – the USA drops nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
      • 1945 CE onwards
        • People such as President Truman and Secretary of State George Marshall, considered the previous policy of isolationism was no longer tenable given the strength of the Soviet Union.
        • Many people worried that if the USA withdrew it’s troops from Europe the USSR would eventually dominate the whole continent. Likewise, the Soviet government, led by Stalin, was suspicious of a Western Hemisphere dominated by the USA.
      • 1947 CE – The Truman Doctrine. When the USA provided the Greek and Turkish governments against communists, this led to the doctrine which stated that the USA would oppose any further expansion of communist territory. The Marshall Plan followed the Truman Doctrine, providing $13.5 billion in economic aid to the war-torn countries of Europe.
      • 1947 CE – 1991 CE – The Cold War – the USA often felt it necessary to overthrow or undermine regimes largely because they were influenced by communist ideas, while at the same time supporting manifestly corrupt and oppressive right-wing regimes considered friendly to the USA.
      • 1948 CE – founding of the OAS (the Organization of American States).
      • 1949 CE – the USA plays a key role in the formation of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). By this time the “Cold War” was a reality.
      • 1950s CE – the civil rights movement begins, the African American population begins to protest against forced segregation.
      • Nov 1, 1955 CE – Apr 30, 1975 CE – Vietnam War. President Kennedy committed ground troops in the early 1960s to “save” Vietnam and its neighboring countries from communism. But they did not want to be saved. The US had more than 500,000 troops in Vietnam. 60,000 US soldiers and 2 million Vietnamese lost their lives, with millions more Vietnamese civilians wounded, orphaned or homeless.
      • 1960s CE – these times were turbulent with legal victories for equality being won in the face of continuing racism.
      • 1963 CE – Cuban Missile Crisis. The US and Soviet Union, as a result, agreed on a test-ban treaty– the Strategic Arms Limitation talks which culminated in the signing of treaties: SALT 1 in 1972 CE, SALT 2 in 1979 CE, and the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) which opened in 1982 CE.
      • 1965 CE – immigration policy of a quota system was replaced by a permitted annual total of immigrants.
      • 1972 CE – Watergate scandal.
      • 1973 – 1974 CE – OPEC Oil Crisis.
      • 1974 CE – Nixon resigns.
      • 1975 CE – End of the Vietnam War.
      • 1980s CE – the migration of a lot of southern white evangelical Christians to the Republican party created a situation of approximate balance with the Democrats who had been winning the majority of seats in Congress since the 1930s.
      • 1980 CE – Ronald Reagan comes to power and he was committed to rolling back the “evil empire”. Reagan and his advisors gambled that they could bankrupt the Soviet Union without causing all-out war.
      • 1989 CE – founding of the Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation Organization.
      • 1992 CE – the signing of NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement). Effective 1994 CE.
      • 1999 CE – the population had increased from 76 million in 1900 to 280 million in 1999. The population had become more racially diverse and more spread out, generally older and richer.
      • 2001 CE, Sept 11th – Terrorists fly planes into the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and Pennsylvania.
      • 2001 CE, Oct 8th – George W. Bush launches air strikes against Afghanistan, targeting al-Qaeda and the Taliban.
      • 2003 CE, March 20th – USA invades Iraq and overthrows Saddam Hussein, and become an occupying force.
  • Vietnam
    • 1959 – 1975 CE – The Vietnam War. Vietnam’s struggle for independence from the French resulted in the division of the country in 1954 into communist North Vietnam and Southern Vietnam (US-backed). The North invades the South in an effort to unify the country (same happened in Korea). US forces, realizing they could not defeat the Vietcong, were withdrawn in March 1973. The communists win the war.

 

Key people of history in date order

  • 2,000 BCE – Abram (Abraham), Old Testament.
  • 1,020 – 1,000 BCE – Saul (chieftain of Israel).
  • 1,000 – 960 BCE – King David (Israel).
  • 960 – 922 BCE – King Solomon (Israel).
  • 550 BCE – Confucius
  • 485 – 425 BCE – Herodotus. Greek historian.
  • 470 – 399 BCE – Socrates. Greek philosopher.
  • 356 – 323 BCE – Alexander the Great (Greek Empire).
  • 27 BCE – 14 CE – Caesar Augustus (Roman Empire, Roman Emperor).
  • 4 BCE – 29 CE – Jesus.
  • 350 – 426 CE – Augustine of Hippo (early Christian theologian & philosopher).
  • 419 CE – Alaric, King of the Goths, sacks Rome.
  • 480 CE – St. Benedict, founder of Western European monasticism.
  • 563 CE – St. Columba settles in Iona, Scotland.
  • 622 CE – Muhammed flees to Medina.
  • 800 – 814 CE – Charlemagne.
  • 1161 – 1216 CE – Pope Innocent III (reigned as pope 1198 – 1216)
  • 1181 – 1226 CE – St. Francis of Assisi (also known as ‘Francesco’– the little Frenchman)
  • 1274 CE – Thomas Aquinas.
  • 1431 CE – Joan of Arc. (During the time of the Hundred Years’ War)
  • 1492 CE – Columbus arrives in the Americas.
  • 1509 – 1547 CE – King Henry VIII (England).
  • 1556 – 1605 CE – Akbar, Mughal emperor, India

 

Christianity, key dates

  • 4 BCE – 29 CE – Jesus.
  • 325 AD – Council of Nicea, Nicene Creed.
  • 410 CE – Fall of Rome (Emperor: Honorius)
  • 476 CE – Fall of the Western Roman Empire (last emperor: Romulus Augustulus, 475-6 CE).
  • 1054 CE – East-West Schism.
  • 1093 – 1274 – Period of scholastic theology including Thomas Aquinas etc.
  • 1095 – 1291 CE – The Crusades.
  • 1099 CE – Crusaders take Jerusalem.
  • 1187 CE – Fall of Jerusalem.
  • 1291 CE – End of Crusader presence in Holy Land.
  • 1378 CE – Great Western Schism.
  • 1492 CE – Christopher Columbus stumbles upon the New World.
  • 1494 CE – Treaty of Tordesillas divides the world between Spain (Crown of Castile) in the west and Portugal in the east.